#Blaklife Magazine, Issue #1.

In This Issue

  1. Introduction - Letter from the Editor
  2. deleted
  3. REVOLUTION by Damaja
  4. deleted
  5. deleted
  6. deleted
  7. REVOLUTION, PART 2 by Damaja
  8. deleted
  9. deleted
  10. Feedback for this (and next) issue

Letter From The Editor...

Welcome to the first issue of #blaklife magazine. :) It took about 5 or so months to finally find time to write it up, but it's here now that my classes are over for the Winter Term. I don't know how many people will read this "intro," but one things for sure - I'm gonna keep it as short as possible. So if you are reading it, you won't be for long.

A Note of Thanks

I'd like to give my thanks to the people who contributed to this magazine, namely *most* of the folks from the IRC Channel #Blaklife. Without y'all I would have been making up my own stuff to put in this magazine, and since I haven't been on the system as much in the past 2 months, I wouldn't have had much to say. But y'all came through for me, so thanks. Instead of naming names, I'll just assume that those of you who know you helped out in any way whatsoever, pat yourselves on the back. :)

About This Magazine...

What you will find in this introductory issue is a mixture of various things I received from people who wanted to contribute. I believe we have enough variety to make this actually look like a magazine and not just a bunch of different text thrown together in some order. Because I got this magazine started so late, you may find that some of the articles were written months ago - but I guarantee you, they are all from 1995. d;-) Hopefully some parts of the magazine will be consistent, such as the "Shout Outs" section and "Want Ads." In addition to this, I hope to have more poetry, music reviews (and since this is WWW, we might put soundclips of the actual music being reviewed.), and other good articles written by folks who spend about 1/3 of their lives in front of a computer screen networking with the many computer-literate brothers and sisters on IRC today, tonight, tomorrow, and visiting you this summer. d;-)

Some cuts and revisions...

Ok... I've talked too long. Enough of this "welcome." Enjoy the magazine, and remember to send me some feedback on it so I know what to do about the next issue.

Adrian Bradley, email atb@engin.umich.edu

RRRRRRRRRR     "Nourished by anger, revolutions are born of hope. They are
RR     RRRR     the offspring of belief and bitterness, of faith in the
RR     RRRR     attainment of one's goals and indignation at the limited
RR   RRRR              rate and extenet of change. Rarely in history are
RRRRRRRR    EVOLUTION  the two stirrings confluent in a sufficent force
RR    RRRR  ~~~~~~~~~  to generate an effective, radical social movement."
RR     RRR                -Harvard Sitkoff, Struggle for Black Equality.
RR      RR      
RR      RR  Written by: Jay Jenkins 1/5/95 jayj@iac.net IRC-#blaklife, Damaja
            All props to my peoples down with the politics of revolution!

%/%                             DISCLAIMER                               /%/  

First of all I would like to add a small disclaimer. The thoughts and ideas
reflected in this text, represent my own and none others. Many of my views
may seem radical and extreme to some readers. Some of my views may even be
seen as predjudical and unnerving. If you feel that the opinions expressed
herein would offend you, then by all means stop reading. This article is
geared to those Brothers and Sisters who are consciously aware of the 
situations facing the Black Community here in AmeriKKKa.


    I would first like you to clear your mind and take a trip through
    the history of AmeriKKKa. Throw out everything you have ever learned
    and imagine that everything white is black, and everything black is
    white. Now look around and observe your power and strength. Not only
    are you in control of great military and police forces, but your economic
    power equals few in a global setting. Everything around you is Black!
    In the most afluent neighborhoods, your children receive the finest in
    education and fine arts. Your connections reach to every corner in this
    nation. There is an unwritten code that if you are Black, you will
    follow in the footsteps of your four fathers of success. You turn on the
    televison and radio and see/hear images of positivity and grace. You 
    sit in your place of worship, and worship a God in your own image. 
    An image your ancestors successfully used to consolidate your power throughout 
    history. Of course you do not think of this consciously, why should you? 
    Africa and all its nations are prosperous. Through generations of occupation
    and destruction, Europe for the most part is considered a "third world"
    country. You really know little about Europe, other than your people
    captured and enslaved whites to work here in America. Although times
    have changed, you value the vast power you look at everyday. How could
    you give this up? It seems ridiculous that you would even think about
    sharing this power and wealth with anyone who was not Black. However
    something does not sit right. The whites are contining pressing for more
    rights. They think they own this damn country, and if it wasn't for
    certain laws you would see to it that they didn't get anything. If it
    weren't for your exclusive establishments you would feel that thorn
    even more. But you have one thing on your side, power. With that power
    you can control the flow of information and communication. If they get
    out of hand, you have powerful police and military forces to quickly
    subdue any radical attempts to make a change......BACK 2 REALITY

    Unfortunatly, this is not reality. For a moment I tried to place my
    mind in a superior complex of thinking. I touched barely on the whole
    scheme of things. I tried to place my mind, in a white mans mind to
    see how they think. Now of course not all whites think in that type of
    mentality, but ask yourself if actions represent an internal feeling of
    superiority. I cannot put myself in their mentality, but what they think
    is expressed through their actions. And if the United States actions
    represent the feelings of the majority, then it is obvious what they think
    about Black Americans. It has not been that long, since this government
    even recognized us as citizens - Do not forget this. They were willing
    to send us to war and die, but not give us the respect of a man or woman.
    Muhammad Ali best put it in the 60's when he refused to be drafted in
    the Vietnam War, "A Viet Cong never called me a nigger."
    When deceit no longer worked in subduing SOME of our minds and feelings, 
    a great revolution took place in this country in the 60s. Often
    whitewashed and called the "Civil Rights Movement", it was in fact a
    Revolution. Did not a radical change take place in this country? So
    why don't we call it that? Why doesn't the history books reveal that
    what took place then, changed America dramatically.

    I have had many discussions with whites regarding civil rights in this
    country. The typical response to questions I ask about racism is,
    "Well it's better than it was..." or "I don't think there is much
    racism, everyone has a fair chance." These are typical responses to
    those who choose to keep their minds locked in a programmed American
    agenda. Don't be fooled either, there are some of us that think this
    way too - believe it or not. There is NO middle ground, either you are
    free and have the freedom of choice or you don't. Are we as Black
    Americans really free? Do we have the freedom of choice to really
    attain success in a racist system? Did the Revolutionary movement that
    took place in the 60's die? Where is the Black leadership that forged
    and reshaped this country then? I am asking you these questions because
    I want you to provoke your own thoughts. This country has failed in all 
    it's attempts to address the racial conflict within. It only put a
    white sheet over it, and brushed all the issues underneath it. While
    giving a facade of a "melting pot", while everyday that melting
    pot is turning into a "boiling pot". It will only be a matter of time
    before all hell goes loose. Statistics show that by the year 2000,
    white Americans will be a minority. What is going to happen then? The
    same thing that happened in South Africa. A Minority holding much of
    the power, and not allowing others to have the means of success. We
    have our Sowethos and Black townships - they are called ghettos. We
    have police with guns and dogs to maintain peace in the ghettos. Whats
    the saying the cops use, "To Serve, Protect, and break a Niggers Neck."
    The Ghetto Gustapo is alive and well in 1994. Events like the Rodney
    King beating go on everyday, but we never hear about that. If that shit
    was happening to whites, you know it would be on the news every night.
    There has and always will be a double standard when it comes to law and
    law enforcement regarding Blacks. You know as well as I know that the
    jails are filled with brothers and sisters locked down. The media trys
    to reinforce stereotypical demigraphs of who commits crimes. We as a
    people only represent some 15% of the total population, and they want
    you and me to believe that we are committing most of the crime? There
    is no such thing as equal justice in this country. They will sentence
    a Black man 25 yrs to life for robbing a convient store, and on the
    other hand send some white collar criminal who stole millions from
    peoples life savings to some country club jail for 5-10yrs. Thats just
    one small example of "blind" justice here.

    It's 1995, and what really has changed? The White man is still up to
    his devilish and deceitful tricks. Many of our communities are infested
    with drugs and gangs. Equal and fair education does not exist. 
    Economically, we are being exploited by whites and others who have no
    love for the community and its betterment. Black on Black crime is on a
    rise, who benefits - Us of them? Teen pregnancy is up, who benefits - Us
    or them? It may sound like that I am only blaming the government and
    whitey for our problems. But the problem cannot be totally blamed on
    them. You see they only provide the evil means for our own downfall, and
    sit back and watch. At the same time, they remove any positive means
    of upliftment. And here is where we create our own extinction, by falling
    into their traps and genocidal plans. In desperate times, people take
    desperate measures to survive. Our strength is in our numbers! We need
    more Unity to consolidate our power, and TAKE whats rightfully ours.
    We always here about the "Jewish Holocaust", six million Jews persecuted
    at the hands of Hitler. What about the "Black Holocaust ?" 
             "One Hundred Million Africans were uprooted from
              the African continent. Where are they today? One
              Hundred million Africans were uprooted, 100 million
              Africans, according to the book Anti-Slavery, by
              Professor Dwight Lowell Dumond. At the end of slavery
              you didn't have 25 million Africans in the Western
              Hemisphere. What happened to those 75 million? Their
              bodies are at the bottom of the ocean, or their blood
              and their bones have fertilized the soul of this
              country" -Excerpt taken from a Malcom X speech.

    You see this is what they think about us. They will RECOGNIZE the
    systamatic deletion of the Jew in Europe during WW][, but for me
    and you our ancestors were a piss in the bucket. We will be one step
    closer to achieving a total revolution when we realize that they don't
    give a fuck about us - and that we need to stick together and support
    each other. Why should we have to play the game by their rules? They
    never played it by ours, how much longer will we let the "okie dokie"
    mentality ride?

    Solutions! Solutions! You are probably thinking, I have heard all of
    this before. If you want answers, look to yourself. You have to forget
    everything they have brainwashed and installed in your mind. Attain
    knowledge of self and do something with it. Pass it on to another
    sister or brother, even if you don't know them. Without Unity, and as
    long as we have tension within our own ranks, we will never win. It
    boils down to Us and Them. Why point the gats and guns at ourselves,
    check who the real enemy is and take aim. Once you have attained a
    revolutionary mindset for change, your actions will come naturally. 
    Sometimes Violence is necessary. The ONLY reason why the non-violent
    movement worked in the 60's and with Gandhi, is because a large 
    majority of people sympathized with the movement when they saw women
    and children being sprayed with hoses and bitten by dogs. But when
    Revolutionary Groups such as the Black Panthers armed themselves and
    said look, you ain't gonna do that shit to us, they felt fear. When
    brothers like Malcom X spoke out, they felt fear. When Angela Davis
    stood up, they felt fear. When Nat Turner and his followers
    rebelled, they definitly felt fear. When Farrakhan speaks, they feel
    fear. They Fear anything that has to do with radical change, a change 
    that directly affects their power. Nothing, let me repeat, NOTHING has
    ever been given to us. Everything we have attained in this country was
    through blood, sweat, and tears. So If you Black Man, Black Woman are 
    waiting for something to be handed down to you - then you will be
    waiting for a long time. Stand up for your rights as a human, in an  
    inhumane society and TAKE WHATS RIGHTFULLY YOURS.

| Any responses, opinions, rags, whatever can be directly emailed to me at |
| jayj@iac.net. Feel Free to spread this around, all I ask is that the     |
| contents within be left alone.                                           |

(NOTE from the editor: As per the author's wish, no modifying was done to this article. It was simply printed as is. To read part II of this article now, click here.)

 _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _

XX     XXXX              "The ideas which can and will sustain our movement                                             
XX     XXXX               for total freedom and dignity of the people cannot                                               
XX   XXXX                    be imprisoned, for they are to be found in the                                             
XXXXXXXX    EVOLUTION PART 2 people. As long as the people live by the ideas                                                   
XX    XXXX  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ of freedom and dignity, there will be no prison                                                     
XX     XXX                   which can hold the movement down."                                       
XX      XX                         -HUEY P NEWTON, BLACK PANTHER
XX     xXXXx  
                  Written by: Jay Jenkins 3/24/95 
             jayj@iac.net IRC-#blaklife, Igwegbe aka Damaja
         All props to my peoples down with the politics of revolution!
 _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _
*                          DISCLAIMER AND NOTES                            *   
The thoughts and ideas found in this text, reflect my own and none others. 
I am not respondsible for any actions that may take place after reading this
text in any manner. Ideas and thoughts presented in quotes, reflect those of 
the particular author. You are free to distribute this text to whomever you
wish all that I ask is that the contents herein be left alone, as I spent
a long time writing this. I do encourage you to forward this to as many people
you know as possible.

Well after getting several compliments on the first text I wrote, titled
"Revolution" I decided to write another one. Unlike the first piece, this
one will be written on a more intellectual level with factual references and
less general opinions on my part. The goal is always to stimulate 
your own thoughts and feelings, and instrument them into your own beliefs. 
I am not writing this for any class or any organization. My writings are to 
enlighten others and in the process stimulate myself intellectually. Enjoy 
the text and as I mentioned before, any comments or responses can be mailed 
directly to me at jayj@iac.net - I usually try to respond to every piece of 
mail sent to me, but if you dont get a reply send another message.
Also if anyone is interested in writing a section that will be included in
further texts, let me know.

FAIR WARNING, THIS IS LOOOOONG! If you are in unix pine mail, type "e" to
export this in your home directory as a file to read later. Or just save
it to read later, OR :) you can read it all now - whatever floats your boat.
This text is much longer than the first one I wrote, and hopefully
significantly better and more organized.
 I.   Blacks and the Conspiracy of the United Snakes Government.
 II.  Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton 
 III. Ultimate Rebellion! 
 IV.  Solutions for Black problems in 1995 and beyond.
 V.   Conclusion, Suggested Readings, Sited Texts.   

            PART ONE: Blacks and the Conspiracy of the U.S
  "Law and order must prevail" has become the clich`e of the 1960's and
  the biggest lie, because the American black man has never known law and
  order except as an instrument of oppression; and it has prevailed upside
  his head at every available oppurtunity. It exists for that purpose. The
  law has been written by white men, for the protection of white men and
  their property, to be enforced by white men against blacks in particular
  and poor folks in general."
                                              -Julius Lester
                        LOOK OUT, WHITEY! BLACK POWER's GON' GET YOUR MAMA!

 Julius Lester slammed that fact dead on the nails head. The United States
 government has spent much of it's time and our money, not addressing civil
 right issues or legislation, but using law and law enforcement against our
 people. Since the first slaves arrived in Jamestown the law on the books
 was and still is to this day, implemented to supress us. The constituition
 was not written with YOU and I in mind. The FBI and local law enforcement
 are the tools that the government uses to enforce their continued racism.

 I would first like to look into one of the biggest racist in our century,
 and how he implemented his racist tactics in building the supreme law
 enforcement organization - J Edgar Hoover and the FBI.

    "I told the Senator (Birch Bayh) that you have an intense
    demoralizing situation where they (blacks) cry 'police
    brutality' on the slightest provaction and the newspapers
    serve no useful purpose in printing the picture...of a Negro
    on the ground with the officers above...I stated that now
    they (the supreme court justices at that time) have gone into
    the field where police officers must address them in a 
    courteous language, particulary in the case of Negroes as
    instead of saying, 'Boy, come here,' they want to be addressed
    as 'Mr.'" -Hoover on Miranda v. Arizona, 377 U.S 201 (1966).

 Well contrary to what he said, the FBI and Cops have always been standing
 over us. If the Rodney King incident had been taped and recorded in the 
 1960's it would have to compete with airtime for the hundreds of other
 police brutality incidents that occured. Hoover and his FBI agents were at
 almost EVERY civil rights demonstration. From the infamous "Bloody Sunday"
 in which Selma troops attacked marchers on the Pettus Bridge, to the freedom
 rides in Mississippi. They sat back and watched, took notes and pictures
 while Klansman and local pigs beat black and white protestors. Their 
 movement however was not limited to just idle watching, but provoking and
 often involving themselves in these matters under Hoover's direct orders.

 The FBI and their interests in blacks have a long history, since it's
 creation (even before it became a federal law enforcement agency). They
 have always been interested in what we are thinking, how we feel, or what
 our mood is. It is naive to believe that these facts are not relevant to
 this day either. I wouldn't be surprised if they are reading this now and
 monitoring various internet news groups. Since the law passed which allowed
 people access to hidden FBI files, there are several interesting tidbits
 which can be found. The FBI monitored for years Black activists, some of
 which you have never heard of and some you have such as: James Baldwin,
 W.E.B Du Bois, Medgar Evers, Marcus Garvey, Fanny Lou Hammer, Martin Luther
 King Jr., Adam Clayton Powell Jr., A.Philip Randolph, Paul Robeson, Bayard
 Rustin, Roy Wilkins, ALL the Black Panther Leaders, and of course Malcom X.
 If you want to read the actual reports and memos the FBI wrote, check the 
 end of this text for suggested readings.

 Now although it was techinically illegal for Hoover and his feds to randomly
 monitor and tap citizens, he created his own bogus reasons to do so. In
 almost every name I mentioned in the previous paragraph, he labeled all of
 these people as communists. By saying they were communists, he had as much
 space,money to carry out any surveilance and monitoring he needed in the
 name of "National Security." Now with the revolutionary climate in the 60s
 it is not to far fetched to believe that The United States government was in
 on the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcom
 X. Albeit, they may have not pulled the trigger but they were an instrumental
 force that allowed these things to happen since they did monitor them 24/7.
 Take into account the planned assassination of Fred Hampton,
 a Black Panther. The Black Panthers were targeted as a communist group and
 in general a internal militant organization that posed a threat to national
 security. Fred Hampton was shot dead in Chicago while sleeping (yeah he
 really posed a threat to national security didnt he?) during an FBI
 orchestrated raid carried out by local pigs. And low and behold, Hoover
 himself signed off a $300 bonus to the informant (house nigger sellout)
 who infiltrated the Black Panthers and assisted with the details of the raid.
 The COINTELPRO (counterintelligence program) did not begin or start with
 Hampton either, but wiped out most of the Black Panthers who were either
 killed in cold blood by cops and feds or framed for crimes they did not
 committ. Geronomo Pratt is a living example of this today. This brother is
 still in jail to this day in California, for a crime he did not committ.
 He was found gulity on armed robbery which resulted in the death of a
 white woman - and although he has an allibi which puts him in another city
 and witnesses to support this allibi he was found gulity and sentenced to
 life imprisionment. 

 Hoover depended highly on a close relationship with local piggies in order
 to solve crimes, that had nothing to do with blacks. However he would not
 jeopordize these relationships by opening up police brutality cases or 
 local police heads with close ties to white supremists organizations. In
 fact this bastard assisted these local pigs. For example the Freedom Rides
 that took place, in which blacks and whites rode through the deep south on
 Greyhound buses and Trailways. The local cops were tipped off by Federal
 Agents as to when these buses would be arriving. The local police chief,
 Bull Connor in turn informed his fellow Klan members of this time and gave
 them a 20 minute grace period to crack heads before the cops would arrive
 and break it up. Buses were ran off the roads by shotguns and molitov
 cocktails (homemade explosives), klan members then boarded the buses and
 pulled people off to an awaiting mob with chains, baseball bats, and lead
 pipes. While of course you know who, the FBI, stood on the sidelines taking
 notes and pictures and NOT protecting blacks being beaten to death.
 I'm sure you all remember the movie, "Mississippi Burning" and the glorious
 FBI came down to the South to fight and uphold justice. Well the events in
 that movie are false. The ONLY thing the FBI did was to put up a nice fat
 bounty to whoever could reveal where the bodies of the three young men were
 at, ultimately found under 30ft of Mississippi soil. The very informant that 
 told them the location, was involved in the murders and collected the
 $30,000.00 reward for information leading to the discovery of the bodies.
 And Hoover, who sincerly believed that their deaths (along with the deaths of the four
 black girls who were killed in the Alabama church bombing) were done by
 Blacks in order to keep a "racial tense" environment going (how sick can
 you be to think this?) and or they had some kind of communist connection.
 And on these grounds he had Michael Schwerner's father telephone wiretaped.
 Regarding the death of a white woman who was a civil rights activist named
 Viola Liuzzo who was shot by klansmen, Hoover had this to say:

  " 'On the womans body,' he told the President, without any evidence
    whatsoever, 'We found needle marks indicating she had been taking
    dope.' He told Attorney General Katenbach that Liuzzo 'was sitting
    very, very close to the Negro in the car...[and] that it had the
    appearance of a necking party.' He told a group of newspaper editors
    from Liuzzo's home state that 'White citizens are primarily decent,
    but frightened for their lives' because 'the colored people are quite
    ignorant, mostly uneducated, and I doubt if they would seek an
    education if they had an oppurtunity. Many who have the right to
    register [to vote] seldom do register.'" -Black Americans, FBI Files.

 Well we all know why she was killed, however I am surprised that the
 brother in the car with her managed to get away without being killed as

 Hoover in his last days was still relentless in his efforts to dehumanize
 and destroy Black organizations. The Black Panthers as I mentioned earlier
 was a significant issue in the later years of his life, and became a focul
 point for FBI offices particularly in Chicago and Southern California.

 From 1967-1972, Black Panthers were targeted for the purposes of causing
 internal dissent and a general crack down on the leaders. On August 25,
 1967 the FBI launched a formal COINTELPRO against what it called
 "black hate groups".

   "Twenty-three field offices participated initially, with the various
   special agents in charge required to assign 'experienced and immagitive'
   agents as 'counter-intelligence coordinators' and give them free reign
   to 'expose, disrupt, misdirect, or otherwise neutralize the activities
   of black nationalist, hate type organizations and groupings, their
   leadership, spokesmen, membership, and supporters." -BA,FBI FILES 
 Now these so called "black hate groups" included almost every organization
 including the very mediocore NAACP, of which organization has white member-
 ships in it. Hoover also tried his best to show that Martin Luther King Jr.,
 had close ties and members in his organization that were Communist.
 Other expanded COINTELPRO goals which are significant to mention is to
 "prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups." The FBI
 noted that this "might be the first step toward a real 'Mau mau' in
 America, the beginning of a true black revolution." They also did not want
 to see the rise of a black "messiah" that would unify Blacks under a
 nationalistic movement. During these years, the Black Panther Party was
 at war with another militant group led by Maulana Karenga - the group
 was called US (as opposed to "them" being the black panthers).
 There were several gun battles in which usually the Black Panthers were
 killed. Hoover and the FBI however were instrumental to many of these
 showdowns in the streets. Just as the United Snakes sent arms to Iraq and
 Iran at the same time, they steadily fed bull to each of these parties.
 They made up cartoons that showed US members killing Black Panthers and 
 mailed them to Black Panther members. They posted the cartoons on telephone 
 poles in many of the ghettos. They did the same to US members as well, by 
 making cartoons of Panthers killing US members and mailing it to them. Other 
 activities such as phone calls making death threats on each groups leaders 
 were regular.
 These are examples that show how the FBI and government have never wanted us
 as a people unified, and have at all attempts seen that this does not 

 We cannot trust the government, including the FBI. Even to this day we still
 see their evil schemes - especially with the recent inditement of Malcom X's
 daughter Shabazz, on planning the assassination of Minister Louis Farrakhan.
 The person whom she allegedly contracted to do the killing is a white
 FBI informant. Now in all fairness, do you really think that the United
 States Government gives a rat's ass about whether or not there is a plot to
 kill Louis Farrakhan? I can guarentee you that the FBI is still monitoring 
 Black Leadership and spokes people. With the Freedom of Information Act 
 ammendmants added in 1974, we now have access to all the documents regarding
 the FBI and sections under "Racial Matters" which would fill a million
 volumes (thats a lot of information!). I am going to include a few of
 these memos for you to look at, however you can probably go to the library
 (a large one, not your school or local one) and find the entire volumes on
 particular blacks that were targeted. Noticed I said were, because we are
 not taking into consideration the ones that are being targeted today or
 that are still under investigation. Although these types of surveilences
 were ended after the death of Hoover, or so they claim, I seriously doubt
 that they do not monitor and keep track of Black Nationalist organizations
 to this day.

 The [Bureau Deletion] within are usually names that the FBI erased that we
 have no idea who the person or persons are. This is all authentic by the
 way, nothing is added or changed on my part, I do however make some comments
 which are in (). There are many many memos on each individual, I just
 picked certain ones to prove my arguement regarding communism and a general
 move to destabilize Black Leaders. Many of the files also contain
 biography information, synopsis of their writings, "shadowed" accounts of
 significant daily activities (shadowed is the detective term for following
 someone), and physical descriptions. I tried to use memos that reflect
 a broad sense of what they all are like. Using different types of memos,
 teletypes, and such to give you a broad idea of what they were writing. To
 say the least, they are very interesting because it gives us an insight to
 their motivations and actions. I would definitly suggest getting these
 accounts and reading them for yourself. The first line is what I added,
 that contains the name of the person in reference to and a brief sentence
 of who they are; as an educated African-American you SHOULD KNOW :)

 * JAMES BALDWIN * Novelist,essayist, playwright.  1924-1987
 TO: SAC, NY (100-16553)                 DATE: MAY 29,1963
 FROM: [Bureau Deletion] SUPERVISOR, #12

 [Bureau Deletion] on 5/21/63 requested a check of the NYO indices and also
 established sources for any information, particularly of a derogatory
 nature, concerning captioned. Information had been developed by the Bureau
 that Baldwin is a homosexual, and on a recent occasion made derogatory
 remarks in reference to the Bureau.
 The indices of the NYO disclose two pertinent files identical to the
 captioned: 100-16552 and [Bureau Deletion].
 [Bureau Deletion] James Baldwin was arrested on 9/3/94 for Disorderly
 Conduct, was arraigned before Judge Balsam and received a suspended sentence
 The Disorderly Conduct charge was for refusal to move on order of a
 policeman. At that time James Baldwin was described as a Negro, age 30,
 novelist, residence 63 West 97th Street...

* W.E.B Du Bois * NAACP founder, professor, novelist, activist (1868-1963)

This case originated at: Atlanta, Georgia
Report made at: Baltimore, Maryland
Date when made: 2/13/43
Period for which made: 12/31/42; 1/29, 2/1/43
Report made by: [Bureau Deletion]
Character of case: Internal Security

 Neighborhood investigation revealed subject to be a great Negro educator,
 author,lecturer and publisher; very studious and not inclined to be a
 social mixer. Interview with active member and officer of Harvard Club of
 Md. revealed nothing of subversive nature. The following is a description
 of the subject as furnished by agent [Bureau Deletion]:
   Age:         70, but appears much younger
   Complexion:  Medium Brown
   Weight:      155-165 lbs
   Height:      5'8 to 5'10
   Hair:        Grey mixed with black, curly Wears pointed goatee
   Eyes:        Dark Brown
   Build:       Stocky
   Accent:      Precise and cultured

 [Bureau Deletion] has known subject personally for 6 of 8 years, and states
 that his loyalty is unquestionable and that he is a fine neighbor...

 Activities by FBI informants for the period of August to October 1950 follow:
 (Ok sorry its way too long to type out all of his activities, but they sure
  as hell dont lack details)

* MARCUS GARVEY * activist, founder Pan-African movement. (1887-1940)

Report made at: Cleveland, Ohio
Date when made: 5/2/23
Period for which made: 4/30/23
Report made by: R.C NOVARIO
Title and character of case: MARCUS GARVEY, Negro Propagandist and Agitator

 Acting under instructions from Agent in Charge J. V. Ryan, this Agent
 attended the meeting at 2226 East 55th St., Eagles Hall, and about 800
 Negro men and women were present.

 Subject entered the hall about 8:30 pm escorted by a uniformed body of about 
 twenty-five men, headed by an American flag and a red,black and green flag,
 followed by about twenty women dressed as nurses with green cross [sic]
 on white caps and about twenty women in white, composing a choir singing
 a church hymn.

 Subject was next introduced as Provisinal President of Africa....
 ...Subject blamed Negroes for not using their brains; that 60 yrs ago a
 black man thought that all he had to do was obey the white man, but now
 the Negro represents a new school of thought, and history tells us that in
 the early ages the black man ruled the world, for in Egypt, Ethiopia, and
 Timbucktoo [sic], the black man was a master of arts and science and the
 white man lived as cannibals in caves...

* FANNY LOU HAMMER * SNCC Member, Activist (1917-1977)

DATE: JUNE 11, 1963
FROM: SAC, ATLANTA /44-1452/



* MARTIN LUTHER KING JR * Need I say more? (1929-1968)                                                        

                                                        April 20, 1962

 Honorable P. Kenneth O'Donnell
 Special Assistant to the President
 The White House
 Washington, D.C.

 My Dear Mr. O'Donnell:
   On February 14, 1962, I furnished you with information concerning Martin
  Luther King, Jr. I thought you would be interested in additional
  information concerning the influence of Stanley David Levison, a secret
  member of the Communist party, on King.
   A confidential source who has furnished reliable information in the past
  advised on April 16, 1962, that he had learned that Levison is forming
  in King's name an organization to be known as the Gandhi Society for Human
  Rights. Levison contemplates sending invitations signed by King to
  approximatley twenty prominent people to attend a luncheon on May 17,1962,
  in Washington, D.C. A public announcement will be made at that time on 
  the formation of the organization. The President and the Attorney General
  Willam P. Rogers may also be invited to the luncheon.
   The informant said that he is under the impression that Theodore Kheel,
  arbitrator for the New York City Transit Authority; Harry Belafonte, a
  well known singer; and A. Philip Randolph, prominent labor leader, are 
  involved in the formation of the organization.
  This information is being furnished to the attorney general.

 Sincerly yours,

* PAUL ROBESON * Singer,Actor,Activist, (1898-1976)

This case orginated at: New York City
Report made at: New York City
Date when made: 12/8/42
Period for which made: 11/17,18,19/42
Report made by: [Bureau Deletion]
Character of case: Internal Security-C

 The investigation in this case is predicated upon the fact that it appears
 that Paul Robeson is a member of a number of communist front organizations...


 Under date of November 28,1942, Confidential Informant [Bureau Deletion]
 of the Indianapolis Field Office furnished that Office with a report
 covering conversation he had with [Bureau Deletion] at that time.
 [Bureau Deletion] told the informant that he is himself an active Communist
 Party member and that he had joined the party after a professional tour in
 England. On this tour Robeson met a man by the name of Henry Pollet who
 was believed to have converted Robeson to the party. [Bureau Deletion]
 further claimed that upon Robeson's return to the United States he donated
 his entire earnings from this trip in the amount of $300,000.00 to the
 Communist Party... This Informant referred to above is a paid informant
 who is considered reliable by the Indianapolis Field Office.

* BAYARD RUSTIN * Organized March on Washington, VERY low key activist.

TO:         SAC, New York [Bureau Deletion] 
                                        Date: Oct. 4, 1963

FROM:       Director, FBI [Bureau Deletion]
            NEGRO QUESTION
            RACIAL MATTERS [Bureau Deletion]
            [Bureau Deletion]

  As you are well aware it is our immediate respondsibility to not only take
 take every available measure in determining communist efforts to exploit
 the racial situation and the extent of the party's influence among the
 Negro people, but also to take necessary steps to neutralize and frustrate
 the party's endeavors. To ensure that we are making [every] effort to meet
 these respondsibilities, the Buereau is currently considering the possibility
 of installing techinal-type coverage on the activities of Bayard Rustin...

 Bayard Rustin resides at Apt 9j, 340 West 28th Street, New York, New York.
 Rustin, who was the Deputy Director of the Aug. 28, 1963, March on Washington
 continues to participate in the current Negro struggle for civil rights.
 According to a confidential source who has furnished reliable information
 in the past, [Bureau Deletion] also commented recently, [Bureau Deletion]
 that the Negroes are now willing to know what the Communist Party has to
 say and to welcome whatever support the communists can give...In order to
 obtain further information concerning the plans of the CPUSA relatating to
 influence in racial matters, it is requested that authority be granted to
 place a techinal surveillance on the residence of Bayard Rustin or on any
 future residence to which he moves...

* Malcom X * You betta ask somebody :) (1925-1965)

A footnote before I enter in some of the memos regarding Malcom X.
Malcom was never more than the FBI's secondary target, their first target
in their investigations and surveilance was Elijah Muhammed. However the FBI
egged on the seperation of Malcom from the Nation of Islam, which resulted
in the assassination of Malcom. The FBI has blood on its hands not because
they pulled the trigger, but because they pushed on knowing that Malcom's
murder was coming and that they knew the tactics of Black Muslims in America
and that they would do anything to protect the name of the self-proclaimed
prophet sent by Allah, Elijah Muhammed.

[Bureau Deletion] the Muslim Cult of Islam, which is also known as the Allah
Temple of Islam, is a religious cult whose members regard Allah as their
supreme being and claim to be the direct descendants of the original race on
earth. The members fanatically follow the teachings of Allah as interpreted
by Elijah Muhammad, the "true prophet of Allah" entitled titular head of the
Muslim Cult of Islam in the United States, and believe that any civil law
[that] conflicts with the Muslim law should be disobeyed. The members
disavow their alliegence to the United States and pledge their allegiance
only to Allah and do not consider it their duty to register for Selective
Service or to serve in the United States Armed Forces as they cannot serve
two masters. According to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad and the cult's
ministers, the members of a minority race in the United States are not
citizens of this country but merely slaves of this country and will continue
to be slaves until they free themselves by destroying non-Muslims and
Christianity in the "War of Armaggeddon."
[Bureau Deletion] Muslims known to him either shave their hair or wear
According to records [Bureau Deletion] the Subject wears chin whiskers.
 The following description of the Subject was obtained from the records
 [Bureau Deletion]

 NAME:              Malcom K. Little, was Malachi [sic] Shabazz;
                    "Rhythm Red"; "Detroit Red"; Jack Carlton;
 DOB:               May 19,1925 Omaha, Nebraska
 RACE:              Negro-mulatto
 SEX:               Male
 Residence:         4336 Williams Street, Inkster, Michigan
 Height:            6' 3 1/2"
 Weight:            180lbs
 Build:             Slender
 Hair:              Black
 Eyes:              Brown
 Complexion:        Light
 Scars & Marks:     1" scar from right eye to nose; 1/2 scar below left
 Peculiarities:     Confirmed user of marijuana; wears chin whiskers
                    and mustache
 Employment:        Cut Rate Department Store
                    8940 Oakland Avenue
                    Inkster, Michigan
                    (Presently unemployed)
 Maritial Staus:    Single
 Nationaity:        American
 FBI No.            4282299
 Social Security#:  376-16-3427

 Report Made by:      SA [Bureau Deletion]
 Title:               Malcom K Little, was Brother Malcom X
 Character of case:   Security matter-MCI
 [Bureau Deletion] subject attended meetings of the MCI, Temple No. 7 NYC,
 during January, 1954. [Bureau Deletion] subject was a tour leader for
 the NYC Temple No.7 at the Chicago Convention of the Cult in February,
 1954. [Bureau Deletion] subject was in attendance at Temple No.7 and was
 enthusiastically going over the teachings of the cult. [Bureau Deletion]
 the subject has openly spoken against the "white devils" and has
 encouraged greater hatred on the part of cult toward the white race.

                Allegeed Threat against Subjects Life

 The March 21, 1964 edition of the New York Amsterdam News contained an
 article on page 50 [that] reflected that subject claimed that officials
 at NOI Mosque No.7 had tried to persuade NOI members that he was insane
 after his suspension in December, 1963. After these NOI officials believed
 they had turned enough NOI members against him, subject alleged that they
 sent a brother out to kill him in cold blood during Feb.,1964, but because
 truth was stronger than falsehood the brother did not believe the charge
 and instead of killing him told him of the plot and of the actions of NOI
 officials. Subject claimed that when he demanded an opportunity to refute
 these charges before NOI Mosque No.7 his request was refused.
 [Bureau Deletion] had no information to indicate that an attempt was ever
 made or contemplated against the life of subject by members of the NOI,
 and that subject had never made such a complaint [Bureau Deletion].
            Efforts by NOI to evict Subject from Residence
 [Bureau Deletion] advised that after Elijah Muhammad learned subject had
 broken with NOI on March 8, 1964, he instructed [Bureau Deletion] to tell
 subject that he must give up his residence, which is owned by NOI.
 [Bureau Deletion] advised that [Bureau Deletion] sent the following letter
 under date of March 10, 1964 to subject:

 Dear Brother Malcom,
   You have several items such as letters, Mosque Film, Negro documents,
  etc. relative to the Muslims and their affairs...[T]he laborers and
  believers herby request your cooperation in turning these items over to
  Muhammad's Mosque No.7 immediatly. Also you are residing in a building
  which was purposed by Muhammad's Mosque No.7 for the use by a laborer
  as designated by the leader and teacher, the honorable Elijah Muhammad,
  who may serve in ministerial capacity or whatever position he places them.
  As you no longer hold this position we the laborers and believers request
  that you vacate the premises located at 23-11 97th Street, East Elmhurst
  69, New York, upon receiving this letter. Upon a call to Captain Joseph
  arrangements can be made to have personal items belonging to the Nation
  of Islam picked up. This letter will also serve notice your car insurance
  is in Muhammed's Mosque No.7 We are requesting that you discontinue using
  the name of Muhammad's Mosque or the Nation of Islam for your personal
  effects...If you continue to use the Nation's name on your car then the
  Mosque will have to take possession of the car, which we do not want to
  do because this car is your personal property...This letter also serves
  notice that Muhammed's Mosque No.7 will discontinue handling expenses
  on utilities at said 23-11 97th Street.
  Reporting office:                 New York
  Office of Origin:                 New York
  Date:                             1/20/65
  Investigative Period:             12/1/64 - 1/15/65
  Report made by:                   [Bureau Deletion]
  Title of Case:                    CHANGED
                                    MALCOM K. LITTLE aka
                                    M. Khalil
  Character of Case:                IS-MMI

  The title of this case is marked "Changed" to add the alias of M.Khalil
  used by subject when he registered at the Hilton Hotel, NYC, on 1/2/65.

                     Foreign Travel of Malcom X

To Africa, April 13,1964 through May 21,1964

On May 21, 1964, Supervisor John Adams, Immigration and Naturalization
Service (INS), JFK airport New York, advised that Malcom X Little, Passport
Number C294275m, using the name Malik Elshabazz arrived in the United States
at 4:25 pm., aboard Pan American Flight 115 from Paris, France.

On July 13, 1964, [BUREAU DELETION] furnished an itineray [for] Malcom
X during his trip to Africa which indicated the following schedule:

April 13, 1964               He departed the U.S for Cairo, Egypt
April 14 to                  in Cairo, United Arab Republic, Beirut,Lebanon
May 5, 1964                  and Saudi Arabia, where he completed pilgrimage
                             to Mecca.
May 6, 1964                  In Lagos, Nigeria
May 8, 1964                  Ibadan, Nigeria
May 10, 1964                 In Accra, Ghana
May 18, 1964                 Morocco.
May 19, 1964                 In Algiers
May 21, 1964                 Returned to the United States.

(the details of each account are also noted, but are too lengthy to address
now but believe me they are well worth reading on your own).


The rest of the FBI memos and notes found in their files, regard the
assassination of Malcom. I am almost certain that whatever surveilance
leading up to his murder have been destroyed. Nontheless, in regards to
Malcom, the FBI files are interesting to say the least as a way of probing
into the people arrested and convicted for his murder. And I would suggest
that if you are interested in these files, to check them out for yourself
as it is too lengthy to type into this text file.
Also they have information about meetings that top NOI ministers including
Malcom X that met with KKK and Neo-Nazi members regarding the Klan selling
large amounts of land in North Carolina for the black seperationists. And
furthermore both parties agreement that the Jew is behind the integration
movement using the negro as a tool. These accounts are worth reading because
I do not think that they are far from the truth, considering that the KKK
and NOI are both seperationist groups.
 Well it is quite evident that the FBI regularly monitored activities by
 Black leaders, writers, musicians etc. In many of the memos where it is
 alleged that the person had communist party connections (in most of these
 cases such as Robeson, were considered believers in the ideas presented
 by Communist but not necessarily Communist) the accusations of which are
 made by paid informants who are often always mentioned in the files as
 "reliable informant". Well an informant gets paid to report back to the FBI
 when it comes down to it, it's his word against someone else. And since
 the informant's identity is never revealed who is to say that these
 "informants" really even existed? It is conceivable to believe that Hoover
 and his FBI agents could have made up these informants in order to use
 government funding to monitor whoever they wanted. All the had to do was
 send Hoover a memo stating that such and such person is believed to be a
 communist and we believe that our dossier is reliable. This whole idea is
 like asking a fox to guard the chicken coup. They intercepted mail, read it
 and passed it along (ie: the letter from NOI to Malcom) They followed people
 and accounted for their daily routines and schedules (ie:Du Bois, Malcom).
 They wiretapped their houses and phones (almost all of the above I 
 mentioned). Does this sound like activity for a country that says it is for
 and by the people? 

 What ultimatly can be gained from knowing these facts, is that racism in
 an integral part of American government and society. And that this govern-
 ment has organizations such as the FBI,NSA,CIA that in all respects are 
 above the law. And any idea, action, words, that go against America's racist
 doctrines are immediately "neutralized" by these racist organizations that
 represent a racist and oppressive government. America has planted the seeds
 of racism and white supremacy, and it has grown into a tall tree. And no
 matter how many limbs you cut off, the tree will replace those limbs. If
 you want to destroy the tree, you must sever it at its base and uproot it
 by force!
 Well since my last text file, many of my fellow brothers and sisters have
 asked about the Black Panthers. Who they were, What did they do, and there
 were several discussions regarding the Black Panther Party on the #blaklife
 mailing list as well as the irc channels. I will attempt to outline some
 of the more prominent known members of the Black Panthers, their encounters
 with law enforcement, their affect on the Black community in the United
 States, and of course their beliefs and theories.

 First of all I would like to make it clear that Black Power, in my humble
 opinion, is in NO WAY comparable to White Power or White Supremacy. Which
 is often the con arguement used against organizations such as the Black
 Panthers. These organizations grew out of an oppressive society and a
 reaction against crimes that are committed against blacks, where as white
 supremist organization exist and born out of pure racial hatred and the
 continual supression on people of color in this country. Agreed that both
 share some of the same basic ideologies such as self-autonomy, and
 Nationalism comparing the two on the same scale is fruitless and merits
 very little in comparison in my opinion.

 The founder of the Black Panther Party was Huey P. Newton (1942-1989). He
 founded the party in Oakland, California which was one of the focul points
 for the movement. Although the Panther Party spread to many of the major
 cities in the U.S that had large amounts of Blacks such as Chicago and
 Detroit, Oakland and California was where their movement was born. While
 in college (Merritt College in Oakland) Huey met Bobby Seale (1937- ) and
 they both organized and officially founded the Black Panther party in
 1966. Other prominent Panthers that joined the party were Eldridge Cleaver,
 Boby Seale's brother Cleveland Seale, Fred Hampton, Mark Clark, Bobby
 Hutton, and Geronomo Pratt just to name a handful of the leaders associated
 with the Black Panther party. Although the exact numbers of Black Panthers
 are not known, atleast by my own findings, it can be estimated that they
 had several thousand Party members across the United States. The party
 which had much of its grass roots foundation in Marxism and the beliefs of
 Mao Tse-Tung were indeed viewed by the government as a threat. Under this
 threat, the government with the help of local law enforcement saw fit to
 quickly subdue and eliminate the roots of the Black Panther movement.

 To understand the basis of what the Black Panthers believed in, one must
 examine the basic foundations that Lenin in the Soviet Union, Mao-Tse Tung
 in China, and Amilcar Cabral in Africa believed. Their theories are basically
 what Newton followed by in forming the Black Panther Party. What Newton
 wanted to do, was to place the black agenda in a greater context that 
 correlates with the twentieth century leftist thought. Whereas Martin Luther
 King believed that freedom arrived from morality practiced in the eyes of
 God, Newton believed that freedom was fighting for the interests of the
 majority of the people in the ultimate goal of freedom. No true revolution
 has never been non-violent, if you look at the Soviet Revolution in 1917
 for example. True Communism would be the ideal system to live under in a
 Utopian society, however since there is not such a society and with the
 large drop off of Communism, it is purely idealistic in my opinion to think
 that such a revolution based on Marxist teachings could ever take place in
 the United States. Furthermore, Marxist do not believe in any form of
 religion. To quote Newton, "When people achieve perfect knowledge, they
 will have attained heaven." Newton's philosophy on religion is also
 unappealing to the masses of blacks, which is another unrealistic aspect
 in the Black Panther Party. I bring this out because it is worth mentioning
 and I don't want to come off as just being pro-Black Panther, but also
 share with you all aspects of their ideologies. Also you are truely a fool
 if you believe in 100% of the ideas of any organization without knowing all 
 the facts first.
 There were various stages that the Black Panther Party went through in its
 ideologies. Ultimatley it came to rest on Internationalism. Ideas of which
 were developed by Marcus Garvey and later on by Malcom X. The United States
 government was very much aware and concerned with Malcom contacting the
 heads of states of various African and Middle East countries in bringing
 formal charges to the United Nations on the treatment of blacks. This of
 course never happened because he was assassinated. But imagine if it did
 happen, how would America look in front of the world along with all of its
 European allies condeming Angolia and South Africa for racism, when in
 fact America stood on hyprocritical ground. Newton took this further to
 state that the black american issue could not be addressed without looking
 at the sufferings of blacks all over the world. Furthermore that the
 success of the black revolution in America could only take place with the
 support and unification of blacks throughout the world. 

 The three major tactics used by the Black Panther Party were (1) Their 
 participation in electorial politics. (2) Their refusal to rule out the
 use of violence as a tool of liberation. (3) Their advocacy of black-white
 alliances. To begin with the last one, because you probably are confused
 a little because why would a Black Nationalistic Organization want any
 kind of alliance with the enemy - whitey. First we have to look at the time
 in which the Black Panther party was at its height, the late 60s. During
 this time there were large amounts of white protestors who spoke out against
 the government for the Vietnam War and Dominican Republic. Newton felt that
 they were sincere in their disgust for the United States, and believed that
 it would be beneficial to form alliances with these whites who would rather
 side against the government than with it. However when posed with the 
 question of how can a pro-black organization accept these alliances, Newton
 falls back to the teachings of Malcom X. That there can be no black-white
 unity until there is first black unity. And that the black revolutinaries 
 will accept aide from white radicals, as long as those radicals understand 
 that the blacks have a mind of our own, something that Eldrige Cleaver 
 addresses in his book Soul On Ice. Furthermore controlling the media, 
 voting, transportation (all of which are the basics of a communist 
 revolution), the use of violence, and black-white radical unity were some of 
 the keys to a successful revolution in America. The second tactic of 
 violence, is more or less what I mentioned earlier. That there is no 
 revolution free of bloodshed, and ultimately the black man and black 
 woman will have to arm themselves and fight for equality. The chant that
 they used, and also the children who were trained for the next generation
 of panthers sang, "Revolution has come...time to pick up the guns."
 Since many Panthers ran for office throughout the years
 Newton believed that through voting, the revolutionary movement could be
 elevated to that level in which people are elected that share the same
 concerns and beliefs. In reference to voting the Black Panthers and all of
 the Black Nationalist groups believe that there should exist a seperate
 political party that represent blacks. In using this comparison today, it
 would truely shake up the balance that the Democrats and Republicans have
 today - of which both parties often target minorities for votes and support.
 At the same time, neither party has ever voiced any sincere concern to
 address black issues in this country.

 Another point to mention about the Black Panthers is the Black Panther
 Manifesto. Which was also called the "Ten-Point" system, and detailed a
 list of demands that the Black Panther Party wanted. Some of the demands
 are somewhat irrational in my opinion, but I will present them to you. They
 are all paraphrased, since I read it about 4 yrs ago and have since
 misplaced my photocopy. Here are the ones I remember off hand (although I
 should have went to the library and got the precise Manifesto for you)
 (1) All Black Jurors when Blacks are tried in court.
 (2) All Blacks freed from prison because they are political prisnors.
 (3) Local cops in all Black neighborhoods are to be removed and replaced
     with Black Panther members who will be the protection. (this of course
     is in response to the overwhelming police brutality in all the major
 (4) Jobs for all Black people, and land. (based on the 40 acres and a mule
 (5) Freedom and Power to determine our destiny.
 (6) All Blacks exempt from military service including the draft.

 What made the Black Panthers so threatning to the government was the fact
 that they believed, along with the ideas of Lenin, that revolutionary
 groups should not operate underground or in secrecy. But be visable to the
 eye of the people and make themselves known. The Panthers were also very
 successful in opening up food kitchens and feeding the poor in mass numbers.
 To my knowledge, I do not know how strong the Black Panther Party is today,
 albeit they are not as powerful today as they were during the height of the
 party the late 1960s.

 The Black Panthers were necessary to provide that balance within the Black
 community. Just as W.E.B DuBois and Marcus Garvey differed, and sometimes
 with harsh words (Garvey called DuBois a "white nigger") it was important
 because it showed that we as a people are diverse and individuals.
 Although the rhetoric was to a lesser degree with Malcom and Martin, they
 too can be seen as men of diversity with a common goal. The Black Panther
 Party in my opinion was the first attempt of blacks at an armed insurection
 against the United States Government. There were of course several other
 black militant organizations, however they were not as successful in the
 recruiting of large numbers of members. The government and FBI was successs-
 ful nontheless in creating dissention within the party by planting informants
 that set up other Black Panthers. The government also saw fit to killing
 off or imprisoning the founders and leaders to cause confusion and ultimately
 shake the Party up. Almost in ever case, it was outright murder or false
 charges brought against the leaders. If you pose a threat to the government
 and even if you operate within the laws of the country, you are not free
 from political persecution.

 This is basically a brief summary of who the Black Panthers were, and the
 philosophies of Huey P Newton the founder of the Party as well. Since this
 whole text is not just about the Black Panthers, I kept the details to a
 minimum. However check your main library where you live for various books
 that I will have as suggested texts at the end of this text.

                      PART THREE: ULTIMATE REBELLION!

 Frederick Douglas wrote, "If there is no struggle, there is no progress."
 What he really meant was, that as long as we as black people in America do
 not continue the fight for ultimate freedom that was planted by Douglas and
 blacks before him we will never get anywhere. If you are happy and content
 as a black man or black woman in this country, just go ahead and stop reading
 the rest of this text right now. If you are dissatisfied, then follow along
 with me.
 As long as we appear to facilitate an aura of happiness, the United States
 Government and the majority of white people in this country are happy as
 well. What really burns me up, is that the white man "gave" (I use this word
 sparingly because they have never given us jack except problems) us a few
 civil liberties, and many of us have gobbled it up with a smile. If you
 starve someone long enough, they will snatch up and even fight for whatever
 scraps are handed down. Oh yes, fight for those little scraps amoungst
 themselves indeed! But what really burns me up is the number of blacks who
 realize that while they are eating crumbs, they could be eating the pie.
 But if attaining that pie means giving up ones little crumbs or morsels they
 fall back on the easy way out - Passive Acceptance. And passive acceptance
 leds to people who do not care about their situations or what is done to
 them, as long as they are getting enough crumbs to make them happy. They
 see to it that we have just enough to make us happy, and do not raise the
 ante until a large number of disatisfied blacks raise the stakes. Look at it
 in a brief historical context. First they freed the slaves with laws that
 existed on the paper but with no physical enforcement of those laws. Well the
 first thing ex-slaves believed that, Hey we are free and we can do anything
 that the white man can do. Wrong! They then came up with Jim Crow laws which
 regulated exactly what type of freedoms we had, but made it clear that we
 did not share the same fruits of freedom that they had. Well after those 
 laws were broken down, they came up with the plan of seperate but equal
 education. This of course did not exsist, and although the Board vs Brown
 decision overturned this law, we still do not have equal education and it
 is still seperated. Predominantly black neighborhoods do not receive the
 same amount of funds for education that white neighborhoods receive. As it
 was back in the day, it is still prevelant in 1995. They have better books,
 more extra-curicular activities, a better environment that is conducive to
 learning. What do we get, scraps. For those of thus that do have the
 oppurtunity to attend private schools they try to seperate us from our people
 by conditioning us to be them. To think like them, and most importantly to
 condition us to react like them. Carter Woodson said that once you control a
 people's thinking, you dont have to worry about their actions. We as a
 people need to reach back to our African roots, and re-develop a sense of
 community. A community that is led by a council of wise elders, whose main
 interests lay with that of the community and not self. And to help those in
 that community that have strayed off the path of righteousness. Many of us,
 not all, once succeeded have forgotten about the community. This whole ideal 
 of self, is purely a Western concept built on greed and American capitalism.

 We as a people have been conditioned by America, to accept what she tells us
 as truth. And our progress, as valiant as it may be, have been in the face
 of oppression and lies. This progress has been very slow in my opinion, when
 America has the tools, money, and power to correct many of these situations.
 But she has not made it "policy" to do so. In fact, this country has made it
 policy not to address the needs and sufferings of all her people - and the
 people historically who have been at the bottom of this scale have been us.

 Now we as a people in this country have not always adhered to the policy of
 passive acceptance, I think this is somewhat of a modern phenomenon. From
 the slave revolts led by Prosser, Andry, Vesey, and Turner proved to the
 United Snakes that blacks were not happy as slaves, although they tried their
 damnist to believe otherwise. The results of these insurections led to
 provisions in the constitution granting southern states federal military
 assistance to quell any revolts or rebellions. During most periods in our
 recent history 1900-1995 there have been riots and revolts that have ravaged
 every major city (and even smaller ones) in this country. The L.A riots being
 the most recent. The L.A riots in my opinion was not just about the aquital
 of the pigs who beat Rodney King, but it was a general outbreak of anger at
 the system. But what immediatly set the fire off was the racial crimes, and
 police brutality inflicted on us. Of course Bush addressed the nation after
 the first two days of rioting, and announced that he would send in troops
 that by the way was comprised of the same forces used to quell internal
 riots during the 60s (those being marshells,fbi,fire&tobacco,etc).

   "So long as the government possesses a virtual monopoly of military
   power and is unencumbered by widespread internal disorder, such as that
   which occurred during the Civil War, white Americans apparently see no
   need to deal seriously with the factors that cause black rebellions.
   Surely, the lack of motivation that afflicts many people of all races
   also affects some African-Americans, but oppurtunity as well as
   motivation are required to achieve upward mobility. Rebellions and
   protests will continue to occur because of the continued racial and
   economic inequity, unfair administration of justice, and our failure
   to use the Constitution to effect needed social, economic, and political
   reforms." - Black Resistance, White Law.

 There are several ways to rebel, which I will explain in the next section
 under Black Nationalism. Whether you fall in the most passive to the most
 radical, you can decide for youself.


  It would be very idealist if I were to say, yes I have all the solutions to
  the problems that African-Americans face today. If I did, I would only be
  kidding myself, and all of you that are reading this. However I would like
  to explore one solution, that I believe can help us get to where we want to
  go. Black Nationalism, Black Power, as a means of uplifting our community
  and solving many of our problems. Black Nationalism is hard to define, as
  to what it is and who fall into the various categories of Black Nationalism.

  Every one of us, no matter how radical our ideas are, are Black Nationalist.
  The first thing I would like to do is to define what Black Power is though.
  Black Power was first really recognized in the 60s, and it was immediatly
  identified with violence - thus many whites, and blacks missed the point and
  dismissed Black Power. Black Power can effectivly be defined as a movement to
  uplift Black people as Newton put it, "from the yoke of white colonolism".
  This is where it begins, by identifying with Afrocentricity. Taking care of
  ourselves as a people before anything else. The major concepts of Black
  nationalism can be broken down into these categories. I feel that every
  black person in this country is a black nationalist, the degrees vary as to
  which philosophies you fall in.

                        1) Political Bargainer.
                        2) Moral Crusader.
                        3) Alienated Reformer.
                        4) Alienated Revolutionary.

 The first concept "political bargainer" is basically the assumption that all
 of our problems can be solved through working within the context of the
 system. The political bargainer concept can be traced back to one uncle tom
 ex-slave named Booker T Washington. Who believed that blacks should "forgive
 their slave masters" and beg them for help, to slowly uplift the black
 community through the white political process. In this respect, blacks could
 work within the two party system for rights and oppurtunities to produce
 goods and services. Current examples of those blacks that fall into this
 category are Shirley Chisholm, and the Black Congressional Congress - which
 brings to mind that song, what have you done for me lately heh. And this
 category is definitly non-violent.

 The second concept is the "Moral Crusader". Moral Crusaders are not
 interested with producing goods and services, but their beliefs rest in
 saving the soul of society. They are nonviolent, and believe in making deals
 with the status-quo and a great willingness to compromise. The majority of
 those that fall into the category of moral crusaders are religous leaders
 such as Jesse Jackson and Martin Luther King., Jr. I start with the
 assumption that whites are not willing to save their souls and make it policy
 to effectivly address black issues. So those who fall in this category are
 no better than the political bargainers. Both categories which can probably
 be construed into one, is what most blacks, and whites associate themselves
 with - working with an illigetimate goat for solutions that are slow, and
 provide a false ideology of true freedom. I reject the idea that we need to
 work within the "system" to effect change. The "majority rules" concept has
 never and will never apply to us, because the democratic view of majority
 rules have no interests in us. The majority is not always right, and I would
 rather stand up and die like a man fighting the majority, than succomb to
 them on my knees.

 The third category, which I find myself in, is the alienated reformer. 
 Alienated reformers, are cynical about the possibilities of effecting change
 through the existing system. Alienated reformers supports the concept of
 Black control of Black communities based on the idea of a revitalized black
 community. Alienated reformers however are interested in "bread and butter"
 issues like the political bargainer, however reject all white values and
 rests on the pride of Black/African culture worldwide. The politics of 
 alienated reformers are based in the belief that many solutions to our
 problems can only be effectivly gained by working outside the context of
 the system. People who fall into this category are Heuy Newton later in 
 his life and possibly Malcom X after his departure from the Nation of Islam.

 The last category, which can be described as the most radical of the four,
 is the Alienated Revolutionary. They are very much the same as the reformers
 except they believe that progressive change can only be achieved through
 calculated acts of instrumental violence. I believe that most blacks who
 fall into this category started out in previous ones, but due to certain
 events and traumatic experiences in their lives push them to these beliefs.
 Most Black Power advocates who fall in this category, also believe in the
 concept of a totally seperate black nation within Amerika. There are
 contradictions I might add to people who fall in these categories, because
 the Black Panthers who believe that violence is necessary at certain points
 do not believe in a seperate nation for blacks. Other groups such as the
 RNA (republic of new africa) believe that no solutions can be found within
 the context of the system, and that blacks should have their own seperate
 nation within the U.S. Farrakhan and Nation of Islam believers fall into
 this category as well, in regards to a seperate nation, however they do not
 believe in violence. Other blacks that fall in this category are Imamu
 Baraka and Imari Obadele I.

 You can see that just defining Black Nationalism is a task in itself, because
 not all of us can particulary say we totally dismiss one concept and embrace
 another. Although I personally consider myself an alienated revolutionary,
 I do not dismiss the fact that violence is necessary.

 America is basically made up of several ethnic groups competing for power.
 If you look at Jews and Asians for example, their success in America has
 come by way of strong ethnocentricty. The problem with us today is because
 our success has come by way of individualism, and less emphasis on community.
 As I said before, we need to go back to our roots where community was the
 priority and selfish views were frowned upon and not accepted. So yes we
 have gained some power, but it is in small numbers and very minimal when
 you look at the situation of the entire community. This is not the case when
 you look at these other ethnic groups that have achieved mass success. We
 must not apologize for the existence of group power, for we have been
 oppressed as a group, and not as individuals. But we have our own number of
 how should I put it, sellouts, and crackers who are against any collective
 black power in America. As Huey Newton put it, there can never be Black and
 White Unity unless there is Black Unity.

 In conclusion, I see Black Nationalism (Black Power) as our only viable
 solution to directly deal with the problems we have today. When we wake up
 and realize that it is only through collective power within ourselves as a
 community then our actions and outcome will reflect that. Some people say
 we don't have the power to achieve this on our own, and I dissagree whole
 heartedly. As long as we keep listening to these white words issuing from a
 black face we will never get anywhere. What we can and should do however, is
 use the resources in America to get where we need to go. This should not
 mean however, disregarding the community and giving up our Afrocentric roots
 in doing this.


 Here is a list of various texts in my own library that I have read and
 consulted in writing this text. I would suggest going to the library and
 checking some of these out, or buying it from your local black bookstore :)
 The ones with * are my particular favorites that I have read more than once

 Black Power Ideologies - John McCartney
 The African Origin of Civilization - Cheikh Anta Diop
 Black Americans and the FBI files - Kenneth O'Reilly
 Black Resistance/White Law - Mary Frances Berry
 * Soul On Ice - Elridge Cleaver
 * Malcom X on Afro-American History - Malcom X 
 * Long Memory: Black Experience in America - John Blassingame, Berry
 The Myth of Black Progress - Stanley Elkins
 What They Never Told you In History - Khamit Kush
 * To Die for the People - Huey P. Newton
 Black Panther Party, hearing - 91st Congress
 This Side of Glory - David Hilliard
 Look out Whitey! - Julius Lester

 Thats about it for this edition of Revolution, I hope you enjoyed it as much
 as I did writing it, and instead of just deleting it - forward to a fellow
 sister or brother that you know, or print it out and pass it along. Peace
                                      Jay Jenkins aka Igwegbe/Damaja

(NOTE from the editor: For those of you who read this magazine the first day it came out, this article may appear different. This is the completed version of "Revolution Part 2" that I had originally planned to put in the next issue of #Blaklife magazine. The author had requested that I replace the older version with this one, and so I did.)

Well, That's It...

This first issue of #Blaklife magazine has come to a close. So how did you like it? I encourage any and all feedback to help me figure out what's going to be on the next issue (if there is one). I will have more detailed fill out forms for you to use in the near future, but for now just send me email at atb@umich.edu if you would like to leave some feedback.

If you are interested in writing an article for the next issue, then click here.

Thanks for reading this first issue of #blaklife magazine, and I'll see you on IRC sometime. d;-)

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Written by Adrian Bradley
Email atb@umich.edu